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Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre (1956)

por Walter Kaufmann (Editor)

Otros autores: Ver la sección otros autores.

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Collects philosophical writings by Dostoevsky, Nietzsche, Rilke, Kierkegaard, Kafka, Jaspers, Ortega, Heidegger, Camus, and Sartre, and includes commentary on the philosophers and their work.

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» Ver también 18 menciones

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many original languages; many translators.
  lidaskoteina | Jun 9, 2021 |
Somewhat "old" now, I still view this as an excellent anthology, most especially the intro by Kaufmann himself. It's rather ironic, because in looking at reader reviews, ratings, comments, etc., now, currently, years later, they seem to reinforce a thesis I got from him, and that the entire concept, if not the term itself, of existentialism is subjective for more reasons that I have time or space to go into. But there are plenty of people complaining about the authors and selections in this book, which reinforces the point that even the so-called "Existentialists" themselves couldn't agree on who or what comprised a "true" existentialist or existentialism. Which is why it probably will prove to be a twentieth century fad, and not a longterm philosophical school. I made peace with this a long time ago and have patterned much of my life's outlook, behaviors and existence on the principles of several noted existentialist writers/philosophers, and I feel comfortable I can back up my stance, but I feel no need to argue it either, nor defend it, because I think even those in question would question the need or point in even doing so. Who really cares who is an "authentic" existentialist? I know of some who do -- they've got too much damn time on their hands. A good book, a classic. Perfect? No. It's subjective. ( )
1 vota scottcholstad | Jan 10, 2020 |
In this work published in 1956, Professor Kaufmann provides a lively and accessible introduction to his well-chosen compilation of writings by existentialists. The most rewarding sections of the introduction are on the major figures of Heidegger and Sartre, but Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and Jaspers also get covered and their views come up further in the Heidegger and Sartre sections. Freud, the Buddha and Schelling are also brought into the discussion at various points. At the end Kaufmann contrasts existentialism and analytic philosophy in the context of his time: existentialism brings philosophy down to earth while analytic philosophy has analytic rigor which unfortunately focuses on trivial issues. Rather than look at each other across a great divide, Kaufmann believes these approaches should be brought together, something Socrates accomplished in the philosophy of his day.

Of Dostoevsky Kaufmann says "I see no reason for calling Dostoevsky an existentialist, but I do think that Part One of the Notes from Underground is the best overture for existentialism ever written." "Kierkegaard [in rejecting reason] would have you become a Christian, Nietzsche [in rejecting Christianity but not reason] says 'Be a man and do not follow me--but yourself!' Heidegger tries to arouse us from the oblivion of Being. And all of them contrast inauthentic and authentic life." "Unlike the great philosophers of the past, [Jaspers] insists that the rational sphere is subphilosophic and that philosophy begins only where reason fails us or, in Jasper's phrase, has suffered shipwreck." "Heidegger's philosophy has increasingly turned from an attempt to comprehend Being directly into a series of efforts to comprehend it by way of interpretation of selected texts." "Many of Sartre's pages on the central themes of existentialism have the plausibility and contact with experience which are lacking in the similar analysis of Heidegger" and "when we compare Sartre and Heidegger it generally seems as if Sartre had written from experience what in Heidegger seemed relatively academic and abstract."

Kierkegaard in his own words: “A crowd in its very concept is untruth, by reason of the fact that it renders the individual completely impenitent and irresponsible, or at least weakens his sense of responsibility by reducing it to a fraction…. The crowd is untruth. Hence no one has more contempt for what it is to be a man than they who make it their profession to lead the crowd. … The crowd is untruth. Therefore, Christ was crucified because ... He would not permit the crowd to aid him in any way… but would be what He is, the Truth, which relates itself to the individual.”

Nietzsche: “The secret of the greatest fruitfulness and the greatest enjoyment of existence is: to live dangerously!”

Jaspers: “Man lives in the world as an existent. As thinking consciousness generally he is searchingly oriented towards objects. As spirit he shapes the idea of the whole in his world existence. As Existenz he is related to Transcendence through which he knows himself as given to himself in his freedom…. Being is not the sum of objects; rather objects extend, as it were, towards our intellect in the subject-object division, from the Encompassing of Being itself, which is beyond objective comprehension, but from which nevertheless all separate, determinate objective knowledge derives….”

Heidegger: “To characterize with a single term both the involvement of Being in human nature and the essential relation of man to the openness (‘there’) of Being as such, the name of ‘being there’ [Dasein] was chosen for that sphere of being in which man stands as man. … ‘Being there’ names that which should first of all be experienced, and subsequently thought of, as a place -- namely, the location of the truth of Being…. The Being that exists is man. Man alone exists …. Horses are, but they do not exist. … God is but does not exist…. The proposition ‘man exists’ means: man is that being whose Being is distinguished by the open-standing standing-in the unconcealededness of Being, from Being, in Being.”

Sartre: “Man is nothing else but what he purposes, he exists only in so far as he realizes himself, he is therefore nothing else but the sum of his actions, nothing else but what his life is. … [M]an is condemned to be free … because he did not create himself, yet is nevertheless at liberty, and from the moment that he is thrown into this world he is responsible for everything he does. … Man is all the time outside of himself: it is in projecting and losing himself beyond himself that he makes man to exist; and, on the other hand, it is by pursuing transcendent aims that he himself is able to exist….. This relation of transcendence as constitutive of man (not in the sense that God is transcendent, but in the sense of self-surpassing) with subjectivity (in such a sense that man is not shut up in himself but forever present in a human universe)-- it is this that we call existential humanism.” ( )
2 vota drsabs | Jan 8, 2020 |
How unfortunate to have forgotten the curator to that museum of ideas. I once was young. Concepts all too often were inchoate. Kaufmann directed my stumbling progress through these choppy waters.
I had a long hooded green coat then.
I walked around the university brooding -- largely for effect.
My focus shifted from social justice to existential peril.
I'd like to beat that guy's ass.
What emerged was a lifelong appreciation of Hamlet.
I'm now curious if further biases leaped upon me with my dazzled attentions elsewhere. ( )
  jonfaith | Feb 22, 2019 |
What is Existentialism? It is perhaps the most misunderstood of modern philosophic positions—misunderstood by reason of its broad popularity and general unfamiliarity with its origins, representatives, and principles.

Existential thinking does not originate with Jean Paul Sartre. It has prior religious, literary, and philosophic origins. In its narrowest formulation it is a metaphysical doctrine, arguing as it does that any definition of man’s essence must follow, not precede, an estimation of his existence. In Heidegger, it affords a view of Being in its totality; in Kierkegaard an approach to that inwardness indispensable to authentic religious experience; for Dostoevsky, Kafka, and Rilke the existential situation bears the stamp of modern man’s alienation, uprootedness, and absurdity; to Sartre it has vast ethical and political implications.

Walter Kaufmann, author of Nietzsche, is eminently qualified to present and interpret the insights of existentialism as they occur and are deepened by the major thinkers who express them.

In every case complete selections or entire works have been employed: The Wall, Existentialism, and the complete chapter on “Self-Deception” from L’être et le Néant by Sartre; two lectures from Jaspers’ book Reason and Existenz; original translations of On My Philosophy by Jaspers and The Way Back into the Ground of Metaphysics by Heidegger. There is, as well, material from Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Rilke, and Camus
1 vota aitastaes | Dec 12, 2016 |
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Kaufmann, WalterEditorautor principaltodas las edicionesconfirmado
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Información del conocimiento común inglés. Edita para encontrar en tu idioma.
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Existentialism is not a philosophy but a label for several widely different revolts against traditional philosophy.
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Collects philosophical writings by Dostoevsky, Nietzsche, Rilke, Kierkegaard, Kafka, Jaspers, Ortega, Heidegger, Camus, and Sartre, and includes commentary on the philosophers and their work.

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